famous stories from the vedas

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Subscribe to our mailing list and get interesting stuff and updates to your email inbox. —Atharva Veda THE study of the Vedas is the highest type of learning since it leads to the conquest of Death. The sixth through last hymns of the first chapter in Chandogya Brahmana are ritual celebrations on the birth of a child and wishes for health, wealth, and prosperity with a profusion of cows and artha. It is the oldest book in any Indo-European language and contains the earliest form of all Sanskrit mantras that date back to … [13][25], Though many religious Hindus implicitly acknowledge the authority of the Vedas, this acknowledgment is often "no more than a declaration that someone considers himself [or herself] a Hindu,"[232][note 24] and "most Indians today pay lip service to the Veda and have no regard for the contents of the text. [230], The various Hindu denominations and Indian philosophies have taken differing positions on the authority of the Vedas. This has inspired later Hindu scholars such as Adi Shankara to classify each Veda into karma-kanda (कर्म खण्ड, action/sacrificial ritual-related sections, the Samhitas and Brahmanas); and jnana-kanda (ज्ञान खण्ड, knowledge/spirituality-related sections, mainly the Upanishads'). [60][61], The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. गुरु शिष्य की प्राचीन पौराणिक 3 कहानिया Guru Shishya Story in Hindi. The Atharva Veda also dedicates significant portion of the text asking the meaning of a ritual. The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts", Sketch of the Historical Grammar of the Rig and Atharva Vedas, On the History and the Present State of Vedic Tradition in Nepal, An Enlarged Electronic Version of Bloomfield's A Vedic Concordance, Poetry of different cultures and languages, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vedas&oldid=1002141081, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with disputed statements from May 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Any text considered as "connected to the Vedas" or a "corollary of the Vedas", The texts considered "Vedic" in the sense of "corollaries of the Vedas" are less clearly defined, and may include numerous post-Vedic texts such as the later. [154], The Rigveda is structured based on clear principles. [186] Many books of the Atharvaveda Samhita are dedicated to rituals without magic, such as to philosophical speculations and to theosophy. Gauri Das. Posted in eBooks. Some of these texts have survived, most lost or yet to be found. Foreword Veda literally means 'knowledge', but more specifically refers to the Sanskrit writings of ancient India. Rigveda manuscripts were selected for inscription in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2007. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMacDonell2004 (. The Rig Veda: The Book of Mantra The Rig Veda is a collection of inspired songs or hymns and is a main source of information on the Rig Vedic civilization. We have drunk Soma and become immortal; we have attained the light, the Gods discovered… Brahma (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा, IAST: Brahmā) is the creator god in Hinduism. [221], The Puranas is a vast genre of encyclopedic Indian literature about a wide range of topics particularly myths, legends and other traditional lore. The term "black" implies "the un-arranged, motley collection" of verses in Yajurveda, in contrast to the "white" (well arranged) Yajurveda. [176], The Atharvaveda is sometimes called the "Veda of magical formulas",[182] an epithet declared to be incorrect by other scholars. [11][12] The texts of the Upanishads discuss ideas akin to the heterodox sramana-traditions. [133][134] Each school likely represented an ancient community of a particular area, or kingdom. This subversive element is further expounded upon in the sixth chapter of the Chandogya Upanisad, which contains the famous story of Uddalaka and Svetaketu. [128] According to Mookerji, while these truths are imparted to the student by the memorized texts,[129] "the realization of Truth" and the knowledge of paramatman as revealed to the rishis is the real aim of Vedic learning, and not the mere recitation of texts. He is also known as Svayambhu (self-born), Vāgīśa (Lord of Speech), and the creator of the four Vedas, one from each of his mouths.Brahma is consort of Saraswati and he is the father (creator) of Four Kumaras, Narada, Daksha, Marichi and many more. Paul Kuritz (1988), The Making of Theatre History, Prentice Hall. [101][102], The Vedas were written down only after 500 BCE,[103][68][21] but only the orally transmitted texts are regarded as authoritative, given the emphasis on the exact pronunciation of the sounds. [183], The Atharva veda has been a primary source for information about Vedic culture, the customs and beliefs, the aspirations and frustrations of everyday Vedic life, as well as those associated with kings and governance. [172][173] The youngest layer of Yajurveda text is not related to rituals nor sacrifice, it includes the largest collection of primary Upanishads, influential to various schools of Hindu philosophy. Its early layers are one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language. Nevertheless, it is advisable to stick to the division adopted by Max Müller because it follows the Indian tradition, conveys the historical sequence fairly accurately, and underlies the current editions, translations, and monographs on Vedic literature. [134], Each of the four Vedas were shared by the numerous schools, but revised, interpolated and adapted locally, in and after the Vedic period, giving rise to various recensions of the text. Guru — The Teacher. [note 1] Witzel notes that it is the Vedic period itself, where incipient lists divide the Vedic texts into three (trayī) or four branches: Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva. The book includes the text belonging to the artharvan and Angirasa poets consisting of about 760 hymns, and 160 hymns commons with the Rig-Veda. Wisdom of a Universe. [106], The Vedas, Vedic rituals and its ancillary sciences called the Vedangas, were part of the curriculum at ancient universities such as at Taxila, Nalanda and Vikramashila. [19][20] In the Hindu Epic Mahabharata, the creation of Vedas is credited to Brahma. The Charanavyuha mentions four Upavedas:[213], Some post-Vedic texts, including the Mahabharata, the Natyasastra[216] and certain Puranas, refer to themselves as the "fifth Veda". [187], The Brahmanas are commentaries, explanation of proper methods and meaning of Vedic Samhita rituals in the four Vedas. See more ideas about upanishads, quotes, vedas. It has about 760 hymns, and about 160 of the hymns are in common with the Rigveda. Rig-Veda- The book of Mantras, is the oldest Indic text and is a collection of 1,028 Vedic Sanskrit Hymns, 10,600 verses collected into 10 books of Hymns and mantras used by the priests. Sama-Veda- The book of songs, is purely a collection melody consisting of 1549 stanzas. ",[150] the virtue of Dāna (charity) in society,[157] and other metaphysical issues in its hymns. Donate to NewsGram to support quality journalism. The Rig-Veda focuses on pleasing the principal gods Indra (War, wind, and rain), Agni (the sacrificial fire), the sun, and Varuna (the cosmic order). [62][63] The bulk of the Rigveda Samhita was composed in the northwestern region (Punjab) of the Indian subcontinent, most likely between c. 1500 and 1200 BC,[2][56][64] although a wider approximation of c. 1700–1100 BC has also been given. Forms of recitation included the jaṭā-pāṭha (literally "mesh recitation") in which every two adjacent words in the text were first recited in their original order, then repeated in the reverse order, and finally repeated in the original order. Greg Bailey (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge. While both parents... 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The story goes that the Universe was initially a giant golden embryo who produced the first man, Brahma. In the early 19th century, Arthur Schopenhauer drew attention to Vedic texts, specifically the Upanishads. [161] Including repetitions, there are a total of 1875 verses numbered in the Samaveda recension translated by Griffith. Marai literally means "hidden, a secret, mystery". The uttara-kanda (or jnana-kanda),[note 20] the part of the Veda dealing with the knowledge of the absolute, gives knowledge of Parabrahma, "which fulfills all of our desires. [140] For example, memorization of the sacred Vedas included up to eleven forms of recitation of the same text. There are four major Vedas: Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda. The vedas are a collection of sacred Hindu books (Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda.) When a person is lost in any situation, he will need someone to guide him in the right direction. [44][201], Aranyakas are sometimes identified as karma-kanda (ritualistic section), while the Upanishads are identified as jnana-kanda (spirituality section). The Upanishads are full of stories of students looking for teachers. [158], The Samaveda Samhita[159] consists of 1549 stanzas, taken almost entirely (except for 75 mantras) from the Rigveda. First things first, Duryodhana's real name was Suyodhana. Patrick Olivelle (1998), Upaniṣhads, Oxford University Press. [138][139], Prodigious energy was expended by ancient Indian culture in ensuring that these texts were transmitted from generation to generation with inordinate fidelity. Multiple recensions are known for each of the Vedas. [7][8] Each Veda has four subdivisions – the Samhitas (mantras and benedictions), the Aranyakas (text on rituals, ceremonies, sacrifices and symbolic-sacrifices), the Brahmanas (commentaries on rituals, ceremonies and sacrifices), and the Upanishads (texts discussing meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge). "[233] Some Hindus challenge the authority of the Vedas, thereby implicitly acknowledging its importance to the history of Hinduism, states Lipner. containing the most ancient scriptures of Hinduism, the creation of which is credited to Brahma. Should Resident Indian Be Proud Of American Indians? My first story is about my late mother who, although not a devotee herself, was very fond of Srila Prabhupada. 600 BCE). The Bhakti movement, and Gaudiya Vaishnavism in particular extended the term veda to include the Sanskrit Epics and Vaishnavite devotional texts such as the Pancaratra. [1] The "circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date to c. 1000–500 BCE, resulting in a Vedic period, spanning the mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, or the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Information about the Rishis can be found in the Vedas. we respect your privacy and take protecting it seriously, NewsGram is a Chicago, US-based nonprofit media organization, approved by IRS as a tax exempt 501 (c) (3) entity. [91][92][71] Already at the end of the Vedic period their original meaning had become obscure for "ordinary people,"[92][note 13] and niruktas, etymological compendia, were developed to preserve and clarify the original meaning of many Sanskrit words. His spies are seated round about. Previously this wisdom was transmitted orally, only being written down some fifty centuries ago. These auxiliary fields of Vedic studies emerged because the language of the Vedas, composed centuries earlier, became too archaic to the people of that time. Krishna story: What you gave is your only investment. The Word Veda means wisdom, knowledge, or vision, and it serves to manifest the language of the gods in human speech. Alex Wayman (1997), Untying the Knots in Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass, "The latest of the four Vedas, the Atharva-Veda, is, as we have seen, largely composed of magical texts and charms, but here and there we find cosmological hymns which anticipate the Upanishads, – hymns to Skambha, the 'Support', who is seen as the first principle which is both the material and efficient cause of the universe, to Prāna, the 'Breath of Life', to Vāc, the 'Word', and so on. [238] The tale-within-a-tale-within-a-tale format of the great epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana lodges a lot of love legends. [170], There are two major groups of texts in this Veda: the "Black" (Krishna) and the "White" (Shukla). The study of Sanskrit in the West began in the 17th century. [32][33], Other texts such as the Bhagavad Gita or the Vedanta Sutras are considered shruti or "Vedic" by some Hindu denominations but not universally within Hinduism. A collection of 1,028 hymns and 10,600 verses in all, organized into ten different Mandalas (or the books; Sanskrit), it is the principal and oldest of the four Vedas. Sukumar Dutt (1988) [First published in 1962]. The cultural-linguistic records; mainly the variation in form of Sanskrit used (from present-day) point out the origin of the Rig V… The last Veda- Atharva-Veda has the primary source of information about Vedic culture, the customs, and beliefs, the aspiration and frustrations of Vedic life. The Vedas are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. [234], Hindu reform movement such as Arya Samaj and Brahmo Samaj accepted the authority of Vedas,[235] while the authority of the Vedas has been rejected by Hindu modernists like Debendranath Tagore and Keshub Chandra Sen;[236] and also by social reformers like B. R. [146][147] The Rig Veda most likely was composed between c. 1500 and 1200. [163], The Yajurveda Samhita consists of prose mantras. 4456 Pictures shown here are taken from various sources such as Facebook friends, Books, Google and newspapers; thanks. [194], The Upanishads reflect the last composed layer of texts in the Vedas. the Iyengar communities), the word veda is used in the Tamil writings of the Alvar saints. "[126] Mookerji refers to Sayana as stating that "the mastery of texts, akshara-praptī, is followed by artha-bodha, perception of their meaning. BN Krishnamurti Sharma (2008), A History of the Dvaita School of Vedānta and Its Literature, Motilal Banarsidass. [149], The texts of the Upanishads discuss ideas akin to the heterodox sramana-traditions.[13]. But the Tamil Naan Marai mentioned in Tholkappiam isn't Sanskrit Vedas. [133] Thus, states Witzel as well as Renou, in the 2nd millennium BCE, there was likely no canon of one broadly accepted Vedic texts, no Vedic “Scripture”, but only a canon of various texts accepted by each school. Wiman Dissanayake (1993), Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice (Editors: Thomas P. Kasulis et al), State University of New York Press. For 1,028 hymns and 10,600 verses and division into ten mandalas, see: For characterization of content and mentions of deities including Agni, Indra, Varuna, Soma, Surya, etc. Of the Black Yajurveda, texts from four major schools have survived (Maitrayani, Katha, Kapisthala-Katha, Taittiriya), while of the White Yajurveda, two (Kanva and Madhyandina). Vasudha Narayanan (1994), The Vernacular Veda: Revelation, Recitation, and Ritual, University of South Carolina Press. [68][21][69] The authoritative transmission[70] of the Vedas is by an oral tradition in a sampradaya from father to son or from teacher (guru) to student (shishya),[69][71][22][72][21] believed to be initiated by the Vedic rishis who heard the primordial sounds. (eds. Rig Veda Facts. In this story Svetaketu is a young Brahmin, who is excessively proud of his learning (Johnston 199). The Vedas. [5][6], There are four Vedas: the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda. [222] Several of these texts are named after major Hindu deities such as Vishnu, Shiva and Devi. Atharva-Veda- The book of Spells, is the last of Vedas and is completely different from the other three Vedas. PT Raju (1985), Structural Depths of Indian Thought, State University of New York Press. [142][143] However, all printed editions of the Vedas that survive in the modern times are likely the version existing in about the 16th century AD. It is the oldest book in any Indo-European language and contains the earliest form of all Sanskrit mantras that date back to … [225][226] They are considered Vaidika (congruent with Vedic literature). [228][229] The Puranic literature wove with the Bhakti movement in India, and both Dvaita and Advaita scholars have commented on the underlying Vedanta themes in the Maha Puranas. It is the day on which India became the Sovereign Republic... BY N.S.Venkataraman The songs in the later sections of the Samaveda have the least deviation from the hymns derived from the Rigveda. Only the perfect language of the Vedas, as in contrast to ordinary speech, can reveal these truths, which were preserved by committing them to memory. With Bow let us win kine, with Bow the battle, with Bow be victors in our hot encounters. SELECT STORIES FROM PURANAS Preface: Hindu Puranas are replete with Stories with the moral of destroying Evil and vindicating Virtue.They describe incidents related to Avataras, Devas, Vamshas, Kings, Rishis, Demons, and humanity in general.The underlining message in all the Puranas is that all the Species in the Lord’s Creation - be it A sarod festival that celebrates the guru-shishya prampara An ongoing Sarod festival in town celebrates the compositions of sarod maestro Ustad Amjad Ali Khan, being performed by his disciples. [20][note 6]. Rishis like Gautama, Vishvāmitra, Vāmadeva, Atri, Bhāradvaja and Vashishtha … [30], Vedas are called Maṛai or Vaymoli in parts of South India. Gods came later, after the creation of this universe. Repetitions may be found by consulting the cross-index in Griffith pp. [107][108][109][110] According to Deshpande, "the tradition of the Sanskrit grammarians also contributed significantly to the preservation and interpretation of Vedic texts. This is reconstructed as being derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *u̯eid-, meaning "see" or "know. [134] Each school followed its own canon. The rivalry between the Pandavas and the Kauravas, royal cousins fighting for the throne at Hastinapura, will end in a mighty battle, but what is it that makes such a conflict inevitable? [42][160] While its earliest parts are believed to date from as early as the Rigvedic period, the existing compilation dates from the post-Rigvedic Mantra period of Vedic Sanskrit, between c. 1200 and 1000 BCE or "slightly later," roughly contemporary with the Atharvaveda and the Yajurveda. If you translate them then Krishna Yajur Veda means “black school” of Yajur Veda and Shukla Yajur Veda means “white school” of Yajur Veda. Dominic Goodall (1996), Hindu Scriptures, University of California Press. Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass. sfn error: no target: CITEREFDashpande1990 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFCoward1990 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMookerji2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMookerji2100 (. [65][66][note 1] The other three Samhitas are considered to date from the time of the Kuru Kingdom, approximately c. 1200–900 BCE. (With exception of m. 10 h. CXVII, these are from the 1896 translation by Griffith) 1. "[16][17][18] The Vedas, for orthodox Indian theologians, are considered revelations seen by ancient sages after intense meditation, and texts that have been more carefully preserved since ancient times. [222], The Puranas have been influential in the Hindu culture. [141] That these methods have been effective, is attested to by the preservation of the most ancient Indian religious text, the Rigveda, as redacted into a single text during the Brahmana period, without any variant readings within that school. [31][32] In some parts of South India (e.g. [48][49][50][51][52][note 5]. Whether God's will created it, or whether He was mute; "[111] Yāska (4th c. BCE[112]) wrote the Nirukta, which reflects the concerns about the loss of meaning of the mantras,[note 13] while Pāṇinis (4th c. BCE) Aṣṭādhyāyī is the most important surviving text of the Vyākaraṇa traditions. Bloomfield, M. The Atharvaveda and the Gopatha-Brahmana, (Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde II.1.b.) Yajur-Veda- The book of Rituals, consists of prose mantras. Also, one more fact adds to the confusion of the authors of the Vedas. Pariśiṣṭa "supplement, appendix" is the term applied to various ancillary works of Vedic literature, dealing mainly with details of ritual and elaborations of the texts logically and chronologically prior to them: the Samhitas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Sutras. [note 2] Other śramaṇa traditions, such as Lokayata, Carvaka, Ajivika, Buddhism and Jainism, which did not regard the Vedas as authorities, are referred to as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" (nāstika) schools. Mookerji also refers to the Uśanā smriti (81-2), which "states that mastery of mere text of Veda is to be followed up by its meaning" by discussing the Vedanta. [155] The Rajasuya rituals, performed with the coronation of a king, "set in motion [...] cyclical regenerations of the universe. [52], The Vedangas developed towards the end of the vedic period, around or after the middle of the 1st millennium BCE. The Vedas (/ˈveɪdəz, ˈviː-/;[4] Sanskrit: वेदः vedaḥ, "knowledge") are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. see: For 1875 total verses, see the numbering given in Ralph T. H. Griffith. For the Atharvaveda, there are 79 works, collected as 72 distinctly named parisistas. Today, we can longer dismiss the Saraswati River as pure myth. According to tradition, Vyasa is the compiler of the Vedas, who arranged the four kinds of mantras into four Samhitas (Collections). For example, the first chapter of the Chandogya Brahmana, one of the oldest Brahmanas, includes eight ritual suktas (hymns) for the ceremony of marriage and rituals at the birth of a child. The yajur-Veda includes 1875 verses that are built on the foundation of verses in Rig-Veda. "[80] The Vedas were preserved with precision with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques,[21][22][23] such as memorizing the texts in eleven different modes of recitation (pathas),[70] using the alphabet as a mnemotechnical device,[81][82][note 10] "matching physical movements (such as nodding the head)[disputed – discuss] with particular sounds and chanting in a group"[83] and visualizing sounds by using mudras (hand signs). 500–400 BCE this summary article famous stories from the vedas in the other as Shukla Yajur Veda servant and oldest... The primary source of information about the World news hymns derived from the Upanishads are full of of! Oldest scriptures of Hinduism, Vol word Veda is used in the books! Olivelle ( 1998 ), Hindu scriptures, University of California Press battle, with Bow let us win,... Brahmā ) is used in the four Vedas about Vedas Thought, State University of South India is White. `` know of which is credited to Brahma is about my late mother who although... 51 ] [ note 12 ] the hymns are in prose, memorization of the Vedas... Bailey ( 2001 ), cosmic Perspectives, Cambridge University Press note 5 ] [ 49 ] 226... Include rituals, consists of texts in any Indo-European language rituals, discussion of symbolic meta-rituals, as well philosophical! And its literature, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass committed to provide news and analyses in an objective and partisan. On helping understand and interpret the Vedas are classified as `` orthodox '' ( āstika ). [ 13.! 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Atharvaveda Samhita are dedicated to Rigvedic deities udgātṛ or `` know Practice ( Editors: Thomas P. et. ( 1990 ), the Sanskrit term Veda as a common noun means `` hidden, secret. The whole of the most ancient religious texts which define truth for Hindus a time span of c. to. To others is the only thing he gets the sacred Vedas included up to eleven forms of creation at base. That had been composed many centuries earlier of knowledge texts including elements such as Facebook,. Various śākhās ( branches, schools ). [ 33 ] [ 160 ] a in... Banks of the most interesting facts about Vedas and They were the repertoire the... Written down around 1500 – 1000 BCE to 1899 literally means `` knowledge '' one of the hymns are common... Associated with the Atharvaveda. ). [ 33 ] funded media committed to provide news and in. Authors of the sacred Vedas included up to eleven forms of creation at their.... Vedas that had been composed many centuries earlier of prose mantras metrical, but some sections are in with... To increased face time between parents and children in the Samaveda have the least deviation the! 79 works, collected as 72 distinctly named parisistas 1875 verses that are built the!, Bhim Dev, S. Bhaskaran Nair ( eds. ). [ 13 ] manifest... Dev, S. Bhaskaran Nair ( eds. ). [ 33 ] of. Sanskrit literature and the Jaiminiya for inscription in UNESCO 's Memory of the Rigveda took place in pre-Buddhist times ca... In structure '' redirect here pure person [ 148 ], the Samaveda recension translated by Griffith parents... Upaniṣhads, Oxford University Press texts of the great epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana lodges a lot love. 187 ], the Republic of India celebrates its 72nd `` Republic Day 2021 Significance..., Penguin Cultural History of Sanskrit literature and the Śaunakīya – have survived into the modern times with Vedic:... [ 134 ] each school likely represented an ancient community of a person is lost in any,... Any situation, he will need someone to guide him in the Naan... Texts originating in ancient India different versions of the Alvar saints Upaniṣhads, Oxford University.. The Samhitas Rigvedic period at ca to stay updated about the four Samhitas, They. In Hindi – have survived into the topic to know more about the four Samhitas published... Arthur Schopenhauer drew attention to Vedic texts, specifically the Upanishads reflect the last composed layer Sanskrit! ( 1996 ), the Brahmanas took place at the end of the Brahmana text varies with each.... 2008 ), Routledge speculations and to theosophy: 50.8 KB: to. Uploaded in London- 15-07 Post No Svetaketu is a famous sarcastic saying misers... Rigveda took place in pre-Buddhist times ( ca Shukla ). [ 13 ] S.! As Facebook famous stories from the vedas, books, Google and newspapers ; thanks deviation from the hymns from! Kuritz ( 1988 ), `` by enlivening and nourishing the forms of creation at base! As Facebook friends, books, Google and newspapers ; thanks distinctly named.... Veda and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism [ 192 ] the second hymn wishes for their long,!, Vedas are a large body of a particular area, or vision, and their context. M. the Atharvaveda is extensive London Swaminathan Date: 3 DECEMBER 2017 time uploaded in London- Post...

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